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Asymmetric Federalism
A type of federalism where constituent units have different sets of rights and obligations which are not necessarilyequal. It refers particularly to some constituent units having more powers than other constituent units and this may be done constitutionally or through ordinary laws.
District Assembly
An assembly of elected chairperson, vice chairperson, mayor and deputy mayor of local level units (rural municipalities, municipalities, sub metropolitian cities and metropolitan cities) at the district level. It is mandated to make coordination between the Village Bodies and Municipalities within the district.
District coordination Committee
It is the executive arm of the District Assembly. The assembly elects the members of the District Coordination Committee consisting of a maximum of nine Members including one Chief, one Deputy Chief, at least three women and at least one Dalit or minority. The District Coordination Committee shall discharge all functions required to be discharged by the District Assembly. It is elected through indirect election from electoral collage consisting of district assembly members.
Disaggragation Federalism
A federal system formed when a unitary state transforms itself into a federation by forming autonomous constituent units.
Enumerated Powers
The powers of making law for specifi c areas that are explicitly assigned to one or more levels of government in a federation. Th ese are distinct from residual powers which are for areas that are not specifi ed but are typically assigned to just one order of government.
Exclusive Jurisdiction
Areas of competence exclusively assigned to one level of government. For example, in a federal system, provinces are given exclusive power in matters listed in provincial list and national government has no power to interfere in those matters.
Executive Federalism
A type of federalism that tends to be dominated by the executive branches such as heads of government and cabinets. The role of legislatures is downplayed in this type of federalism. It can be particularly strong in parliamentary traditions of federations, where the executives of each government are supported by majorities in their legislatures and the legislatures are highly likely to adopt decisions agreed upon by their executives.
Protection of Minorities
It involves constitutional and statutory provisions of guaranteeing fundamental freedoms of minority groups. It also involves the representation of linguistic, cultural or other minority groups at various levels and bodies of the government. In a federal system of governance, however, the protection of minorities also means ensuring constitutional measures for the right of selfgovernance
to those groups.
Residual Powers
Those unidentified powers that are left by a federal constitution either implicitly or explicitly to a particular order of government in contrast to explicitly assigned enumerated powers. In the United States such powers are reserved to the people or to the state.
Self Determination
In modern international law, right to self-determination may be defi ned as a concept of self rule of a particular community. Th is may not equate to a right to nationhood, but at a minimum ensures the right of a people to preserve its language and heritage.
Single Identity based Federalism
The concept of single identity-based federalism entails the idea that federal units are designed to give one dominant single-identity group a majority status in each of the given federal units. Basically, in a single-identity based federalism, these groups would also have special priority rights both in relation to government positions and in relation to the use of natural resources (see also Ethnic Federalism and Identity based federalism)
Village/Municipal Assembly
The legislative powers of the Local Level are vested in the Village/ Municpal Assembly. An Assembly generally consists of the Chairperson or mayor and Vice-Chairpersonor vice mayor of the Village/ Muncipal Executive, Ward Chairpersons, and four members elected from each ward and Members of the Village/Municpal Executive elected from Dalit and minority communities with representation of two women members from each ward.