Dec 23, 2021

Profile of Local Government in Nepal
Province 1: It has 14 districts. Within districts one Metropolitan City, 2 Sub-metropolitan City, 46 Municipality and 88 Rural Municipality are there. All has 1157 wards in total.

  1. Bhojpur: Bojpur has 9 municipalities, 7 rural and 2 urban.

A. Hatuwagadhi Rural Minucipality:
Hatuwagadhi Rural Municipality is situated in province one, within Bhojpur district. It is located in the southern east part of Bhojpur district. The bordering districts and other municipalities are on its southeastern border Dhankuta district lies, on south Udayapur district, on its west Aamchok Rural Municipality and on northeastern side Ramprashad Rai and Pauwadungma Rural Municipality lies. This is one of the historical places known for the origin of Kirat ruler. The historical connection with the name of this municipality is, during the unification of the Nepal the army of the Kirat King of this area and of King Prithivi Narayan Shah’s fought and the meeting point of their blood named as Hatuwagadhi. And this place is also known for the meeting point of all seven big rivers to name; Arun, Tamor, Dudhkoshi, Sunkochi, Bhotekoshi, Indrawati and Likhu. The area it occupies is 142.61 square kilometer. The total population of this Gaunpalika is 20404. This Gaunpalikaconstists of 6 VDCs (Ranibas, Homtang, Khairang, Sindrang, Patlepani and Hasanpur) of previous governmental system. Now they are divided into 9 wards.

Prem Kumar Rai is the Chairperson of this Gaunpalika and ManiramKhatiwada is Chief Administrative Officer.

With a total population of 20,402, this rural municipality has a total area of 142.62 square km (National Census 2011).

All the 9 wards have ward offices to provide local administrative services.

The table below shows the current law, procedures and guidelines active in HatuwagadhiGaunpalika.

Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by HatuwagadhiGaunpalika:
Name of the laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Procedure for Issuing of Senior Citizen card 2075 2/12/2019
  2. Procedure for registration of organizations 2075 2/12/2019
  3. Procedure for animal farming in the Gaunpalika 2075 2/12/2019
  4. Procedure for women Development program 2075 2/12/2019
  5. Procedure for agriculture Development program 2075 2/12/2019
  6. Procedure published in Local gazette for Judicial Committee on dispute resolution 2075 2/12/2019
  7. Procedure for management of community based organization 2075 2/12/2019
  8. Collection of laws adopted in the fiscal year 2075/76 2/12/2019

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of Hatuwagadhi Gaunpalika :
Year 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21
Total Budget 276,227,000 N/a N/a
Income N/a N/a 5,200,000
Taxes N/a N/a 3,700,000 (forecasted)
Non-taxes N/a N/a N/a

B. Ramprashad Rai Rural Municipality:
Ramprasad Rai is a rural municipality out of seven rural municipalities of Bhojpur District of Province No. 1 of Nepal. This rural municipality that got its name after Ram Prasad Rai, a democratic warrior is situated in south-west area of the district.
Ramprasadrai has an area of 158.83 square kilometers (61.32 sq mi) and total population of the municipality is 18,894 as of Census of Nepal 2011. Of the total population, 53.5 percent are female (10,111) and the rest, 46.5 percent are male (8,783). Similarly, the population density is 119 per km square. The municipality is divided into eight wards which have a total of 188 villages/settlements.. This new local level body was formed on 10 March 2017, fulfilling the requirement of the new Constitution of Nepal 2015. This gaunpalika remains under House of Representative Election Bhojpur Area Number 1 and Province Assembly Election Bhojpur Area No. 2. As per the organogram of this gaunpalika, it is divided into two divisions – thematic and structural. The thematic division includes Health department, Ayurved department, Agriculture department, Livestock department, Education department and women development department. While, the structural division is consists information and communication department, technical department, Account department, Planning department, Program department and Earthquake reconstruction department.

While Vijay Rai is Chairperson of this rural municipality, it is co-chaired by Samjhana Rai. Regarding the social-cultural aspect, this area is dominated by Mongolian culture and resided by the people of Limbu, Kirat Rai, Magar, Tamang and Gurung community. A majority of residents of this rural municipality follow Kirat, followed by Buddhism and Hinduism. This rural municipality is basically a hilly/mountainous one and is a full of rugged terrain. This municipality offers natural climate condition with fresh air, atmosphere, water facility and environment.
Chilaunetar bazar is the center of this gaunpalika. According to a survey conducted in 2076 BS, the literacy rate of this gaunpalika is 68.60 percent with 72.53 percent men and 64.46 percent women being literate. This rural municipality acquired 0.48 rating when it comes to human development index.
Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by Ramprasad Rai Gaunpalika :
Name of the Laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Allocation Act of Ramprasad RaiGaunpalika– 2075 2075/3/32
  2. Working procedure on operation and management of crisis management fund-2075 2075/9/6
  3. Working procedure for distributing identity cards to the people with disabilities of RamprasadraiGaunpalika 2075/9/6
  4. Economic Act of Ramprasad Rai Rural Municipality 2018-8-28
  5. Annual Policy, Programs and Budget of Ramprasad Rai Rural Municipality- 2075-3-32

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of Ramprasad Rai Gaunpalika :
Year 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21
Total Budget
Conditional Grants
Special Grants
Equalization Grants
Complementary Grants

C. Aamchok Rural Municipality:
Aamchok is a rural municipality according to MoFALD, has an area of 184.89 square kilometres (71.39 sq mi) and the total population of the municipality is 18, 720 as of Census of Nepal 2011. Wasingtharpu, Yoo, Dummana, Thidingkha, Pawala, Dewantar, Balankha and Pangcha VDCs were merged to form Aamchok Rural Municipality. Balankha is the Headquarter of this newly formed municipality. This rural municipality shares its border with Hathuwagadhi rural municipality in the east, Ramprasad Rai rural municipality in the north, Jantedhunga rural municipality of Khotang in the west and Chaudandigadhi and Belka rural municipality of Udayapur in the south.
This gaunpalika has 3,577 households with a total population of 20,380.
The municipality is naturally resourceful as it has 8,734 hectares of forest area which provides home to varieties of flora and fauna as well as wild lives and species.
Thamdanda with an altitude of 2,442 meters is the highest place of this gaunpalika while the lowest landscape, Diglapuko Parkuwa stands just 200 meters above the sea level.
Regarding the demographics, Kirat Rai is a dominant ethnicity in this gaunpalika while this area is also abode to people from Chettri, Newar, Magar, BK, Sherpa,Tamang, Brahmin, Pariyar and other backgrounds. Despite the geographical complexity of this gaunpalika, it has a huge prospects for economic development. Diversity in agricultural production, availability of natural resources like forest, herbs and water, possibility of water transportation from Saptakoshi to Sanitra as well as its historical, cultural, religious sites with tourism significance places this gaunpalika aptly for its economic development.
Ashok Rai is the Chairperson of this gaunpalika and Sita Rai is Co-chair. This gaunpalika has 10 wards.

Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by AamchowkGaunpalika
Name of the Laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Allocation Act of AamchowkGaunpalika – 2075 2075/4/21
  2. Allocation Act of Aamchowk Gaunpalika-2071 2075/4/21
  3. Economic Act 2075/4/21
  4. Market Monitoring Directive of AamchowkGaunpalika-
  5. Drinking Water Act-2074
  6. Law formulated to implement and manage economic working procedure of Aamchowk Gaunpalika-2074
  7. Local Level Cooperative Act of Aamchowk Gaunpalika-2074
  8. Agriculture Business Promotion Act of Aamchowk Gaunpalika-2074
  9. Tea and Coffee Development Act of Aamchowk Gaunpalika-2074

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of AamchowkGaunpalika :
Year 2019/20 2020/21
Total Budget 282,520,000 304,566,000
Income N/a N/a
Conditional Grants N/a 134,100,000
Special Grants N/a N/a
Equalization Grants N/a 81,300,000
Complementary Grants N/a N/a
Taxes 3,000,000 3,490,000

D. Tyamke Maiyun Rural Municipality:
TyamkeMaiyun Rural Municipality is located in Province No. 1, towards 28 km west from the Bhojpur district headquarters. The area where this gaunpalika is situated used to be known as 4 number killa during the mediaeval time. It is hence, this gaunpalika has a historical significance. Due to its connectivity with Mid Hill Highway resulting in easiness to reach to country’s capital Kathmandu, this place also has higher tourism potential.
The name of this rural municipality was chosen to represent and popularize two of the hillocks –Tyamke and Maiyun– that lie in within its territory.Bhojpur Municipality lies in the east of this gaunpalika while Ramprasad Rai Gaunpalika shares border with this gaunpalika in the south. Similarly, Khotanggaunpalika is connected in the west and Sakelagaunpalika, Khotang is linked towards the north. It was constituted by merging the then 8 VDCs including, Timma, Chinamakhu, Annapurna, Nagi, Khawa, Kot, Gogane and Lekhark.
Tamke hillock, Chakhewa hillock, Maiyun hillock, Majuwa Pond, Hansh Pond as well as Mahivar waterfall, Sawa waterfall, Panchi waterfall and Maksha waterfall offers temptation to the both domestic and foreign tourists.
This gaunpalika is also very rich when it comes to wild lives and bio-diversity while Annapurna Bharuchowk dada offers a very scenic view for travelers. At the same time, with its Pipuwa River, Hinkhuwa River, Yangtang River and Wamchile River, this gaunpalika is very resourceful in water.
Among the total population of 17,911, a majority of people are engaged in agriculture while some are also involved inIndian and British Army force. Talking about the demographics, this gaunpalika is a mixed and patriarchy and dominated by Hindu and Kirat followers. The settlement pattern of this area is scattered posing challenged for development works to initiate.
This municipality with the area of 173.41 sq meter has a total altitude of 3,300 meter. This gaunpalika is divided into nine wards to simplify its administrative affairs.
Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by TyamkeMaiyun Rural Municipality:
Name of the Laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Procedure regarding issuing license to ‘D’ category construction contractors – 2075 2075/5/19
  2. Procedure for operation and management of Equalization Fund – 2075 2075/3/30
  3. Procedure on Conducting Rural Municipality Meeting – 2074/4/18
  4. Code of Conduct for Rural Municipal Office Bearers – 2074 2074/5/2
  5. Proposition on Market Monitoring-2075 2075/3/9

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of TyamkeMaiyun Rural Municipality :
Year 2019/20
Total Budget 388,960,800
Income 3,320,000
Conditional Grants 174,000,000
Special Grants
Equalization Grants 6987000
Complementary Grants
Taxes 67,500,000

E. Arun Rural Municipality:
Far-fetched from the Bhojpur district headquarters, Arun Rural Municipality has its own political, historical and social significance and characteristics. This gaunpalika is extended with 154.76 sq meter area and the terrain is rugged and hilly.
This gaunpalika has a total population of 17,687 people who belong to mixed caste, ethnicity and religious community.
Chaired by Gajendra Bahadur Karki, this rural municipality is divided into seven wards and Binita Dhakal is Vice-chairman. This gaunpalika functions under the Rural Assembly and is four departments including, Administration, Planning and Monitoring Department, Infrastructure Development and Environment Management Department, Social and Economic Development Department and Education, Youth and Sports Department.
Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by Arun Rural Municipality:
Name of the Laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Economic Act of Arun Rural Municipality-2075 2075/3/31
  2. Procedure regarding issuing license to ‘D’ category construction contractors – 2074
  3. Procedure Relating to the Formation, Mobilization and Management of Local Level Consumer Committee – 2074
  4. Bill formulated to manage procedure while executing penal decision on complaints by Legal Committee –
  5. Act to formulize Local Level Administrative Procedure of Arun Gaunpalika-2074
  6. Education Manual
  7. Market Monitoring Directive of Arun Gaunpalika-2075
  8. Cooperative Act of Arun Gaunpalika-2074
  9. Procedure of ArunGaunpalika Relating to Managing Technical Staffs in Contract – 2075
  10. Law for regulating and managing Economic Procedure – 2074

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of Arun Rural Municipality :
Year 2020/21
Total Budget Rs382,253,880
Conditional Grants 189,600,000
Special Grants 15,000,000
Equalization Grants Rs84,300,000
Complementary Grants 7,500,000
Taxes 12,500,000
Non-taxes N/a

F. Pauwadungma Rural Municipality:
Formed by combining the then 6 VDCs including, Shyamshila, Tiwaribhyanjyang, Chyangre, Bastim, Sanodumma and Thulodumma, Pauwadungma Rural Municipality is located in Bhojpur district under Province No. 1. Kiran Rai is the Chairman and Samjhana Rai is the Vice-chairman of this gaunpalika. When it comes to the naming of this rural municipality, there were many ‘thums’ like, HathuwaThum, SiktelThum, KhikhamachaThum and PauwaThum in Bhojpur district during the time of unification of Nepal initiated by Prithvi Narayan Shah. There were 16 VDCs under PauwaThum. Thum means to drink in endangered Dungmali language. Hence, this gaunpalika was named by combining two words – Pauwa and Dung.
Arun River flows towards the eastern boarder of this rural municipality while Bhojpur Municipality lies towards the west. Similarly, Arun Rural Municipality shares northern border and Ramprasad Rai Rural Municipality and Hathuwagadhi Rural Municipality shares southern border with this gaunpalika. This gaunpalika with its total area of 118.8 sq meter is a settlement of a of total of 15,394 people including 8,276 male and the rest, 7,118 female, according to the Census of 2068 B.S.
Arun Hillock, Chiwachung Hillock, Shiwalaya Park, Chyangre Pond, ShantaneshworMahadev and Sishire Hillock are some of the major tourism attractions of this gaunpalika. This rural municipality has been divided into six wards and all ward offices have road connectivity. Kiran Rai and Samjhana Rai are Chairman and Vice-chairman respectively.
When it comes to socio-economic situation, agriculture is the main occupation of this area. Paddy, rice, maize, millet and barley are major crops being produced in this gaunpalika at the same time, this rural municipality is also popular for the production of ginger, tea and cardamom. This is a mixed caste settlement and Brahim, Chettri, New, Kumai, Rai, Tamang, Magar, Bhujel and Limbu are major dwellers.
Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by Pauwadungma Rural Municipality:
Name of the Laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Manual on Public Procurement of Pauwadungma Rural Municipality 2076/12/29
  2. Criteria Regarding Providing Relief to Labor Workers of Unorganized Sector and Helpless People – 2076 2076/12/24
  3. Directive on Formation and Management of Farmers’ Group-2075 2075/8/4
  4. Group Management Directive-2075 2075/8/4
  5. Economic Act-2075
  6. Allocation Act-2075
  7. Procedure on Conducting Rural Assembly – 2075 2074/9/27
  8. Procedure for conducting meeting of village executive committee
  9. Procedure Regarding Conducting Meeting of Rural Executive-2074

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of Pauwadungma Rural Municipality:
Year 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21
Total Budget 222,089,000 318,164,000 322,907,850
Conditional Grants 78,386,000 125,308,000 147,700,000
Special Grants
Equalization Grants 74,600,000 78,900,000
Complementary Grants
Taxes 1,353,000 33,554,760.74 15,037,000

G. Salpasilichho Rural Municipality:
Faraway from the Bhojpur district Headquarters, this gaunpalika has its own religious, social, political and cultural significance. With six wards under it, this rural municipality is extended within the area of 193 square kilo meter. The terrain is rugged and hilly. Shadananda Municipality lies in the south of this gaunpalika while Khotang district, Sankhuwasabha district and Solukhumbu district share their boarder in west, east and north with this rural municipality respectively.
The total population of this gaunpalika is 13,111 including, 6,265 men and 6,846 women. The settlement is mixed as the dwellers of this rural municipality represent varied caste, ethnicity and religion.
While Mahesh Rai is the Chairman of this gaunpalika, it is co-chaired by Dhana Maya Rai.

Table 1. List of laws, procedures and guidelines adopted by Salpasilichho Rural Municipality:
Name of the Laws Date of authentication Links

  1. Procedure on Formation, Mobilization and Management of Local Level Consumer Committee-2075
  2. Directive on Local Energy Development-2075
  3. Procedure on Crisis Management (Fund)
  4. Administrative Procedure-2074 2074/12/16
  5. Procedure on Issuing License to D Category Construction Contractors 2075/6/25
  6. Market Monitoring Directive of Gaunpalika 2075/6/25
  7. Procedure for the Management of Technical Staffs in Contract

Fiscal Profile:
Table on fiscal profile of Salpasilichho Rural Municipality:
Year 2018/19 2019/20 2020/21
Total Budget 23,872,000 284,895,000 349,927,970
Income 2,500,000 3,000,000
Conditional Grants 112,300,000 131,500,000 161,100,000
Special Grants
Equalization Grants 60,000,000 70,400,000 73,300,000
Complementary Grants
Taxes 650,000 2,513,000 2,010,000