Province level

The Province is a unit of the state structure of Nepal. The Province is a political entity that exercises constitutional authority within defined political boundary. Within the Province, there are a specified number of local levels. There are currently seven provincial units in Nepal. As per the constitutional spirit and allocation of powers, the provinces operate between the federal and the local level. Therefore, provinces are expected to bridge between federal and local level. In federalized countries, provincial units are responsible for the economic and social development of the province, guaranteeing basic security of citizens, leading tasks that the federal government should undertake at the provincial level, developing the capacity of the local level and expanding the state structure. It is expected that province would safeguard the rights of local level and protect the federal government from unnecessary interference. The province will implement its policies and plans according to its geographical, social and economic diversity and needs and identify the potential for economic development and would strive for becoming self-reliant. Province together with federal and local level would work towards to protect Nepal’s geographical integrity, fundamental rights, national interest and multi-party competitive democratic federal governance system. In the province, the provincial assembly exercises legislative power and the provincial cabinet exercises executive power.

Powers of Provincial Level

Schedule-6 (Exclusive)

Relating to clause (2) of Article 57, clause (4) of Article 162,

Article 197, clause (3) of Article 231, clause (7) of Article 232, clause

(4) of Article 274 and clause (4) of Article 296) of The Constitution of Nepal, 2015

  1. State police administration and peace and order
  2. Operation of banks and financial institutions in accordance with the policies of Nepal Rastra Bank, cooperative institutions, foreign grants and assistance with the consent of the Centre
  3. Operation of Radio, F.M., television
  4. House and land registration fee, motor vehicle tax, entertainment tax, advertisement tax, tourism, agro-income tax, service charge, fee, penalty
  5. State civil service and other government services
  6. State statistics
  7. State level electricity, irrigation and water supply services, navigation
  8. State universities, higher education, libraries, museums
  9. Health services
  10. Matters relating to the State Assembly, State Council of Ministers
  11. Intra-State trade
  12. State highways
  13. State bureau of investigation
  14. Physical management and other necessary matters of State governmental offices
  15. State Public Service Commission
  16. Management of lands, land records
  17. Exploration and management of mines
  18. Protection and use of languages, scripts, cultures, fine arts and religions
  19. Use of forests and waters and management of environment within the State
  20. Agriculture and livestock development, factories, industrialization, trade, business, transportation
  21. Management of trusts (Guthi)

Powers of Federal Level and Provincial Level

Schedule-7 (Concurrent Powers of Federation and Province)

(Relating to clause (3) of Articles 57, Article 109, clause (4) of Article 162, and Article 197) of The Constitution of Nepal, 2015

  1. Civil and criminal procedure, evidence and oaths (legal recognition, public acts and  records, and judicial proceedings)
  2. Supply, distribution, price control, quality and monitoring of essential goods and services
  3. Preventive detention for reasons connected with the security of the country, prison and detention management, and maintenance of peace and order
  4. Transfer of accused persons, detainees and prisoners from one State to another State
  5. Laws relating to family affairs (marriage, transfer of property, divorce, persons on the verge of extinction, orphan, adoption, succession and joint family)
  6. Acquisition, requisitioning of property and creation of right in property
  7. Contracts, cooperatives, partnership and agency related matters
  8. Matters relating to bankruptcy and insolvency
  9. Drugs and pesticides
  10. Planning, family planning and population management
  11. Social security and employment, trade unions, settlement of industrial disputes, and labour rights and disputes related matters
  12. Legal profession, auditing, engineering, medicines, Ayurvedic medicines, veterinary, Amchi and other professions
  13. State boundary river, waterways, environment protection, biological diversity
  14. Matters related to means of communication
  15. Industries and mines and physical infrastructures
  16. Casino, lottery
  17. Early preparedness for, rescue, relief and rehabilitation from, natural and manmade calamities
  18. Tourism, water supply and sanitation
  19. Motion pictures, cinema halls and sports
  20. Insurance business operation and management
  21. Poverty alleviation and industrialization
  22. Scientific research, science and technology and human resources development
  23. Utilization of forests, mountains, forest conservation areas and waters stretching in inter-State form
  24. Land policies and laws relating thereto
  25. Employment and unemployment aid

Powers of Federal, Province and Local Level

Schedule 9 (Concurrent Power)

(Relating to clause (5) of Article 57, Article 109, clause (4) of Article 162, Article 197, clause (2) of Article 214, clause (2) of Article 221, and clause (1) of Article 226)
List of Concurrent Powers of Federation, State and Local Level

  1. Cooperatives
  2. Education, health and newspapers
  3. Health
  4. Agriculture
  5. Services such as electricity, water supply, irrigation
  6. Service  fee,  charge,  penalty and royalty from  natural  resources,
  7. Forests, wildlife, birds, water uses, environment, ecology and bio-diversity
  8. Mines and minerals
  9. Disaster management
  10. Social security and poverty alleviation
  11. Personal events, births, deaths, marriages and statistics
  12. Archaeology,  ancient monuments and museums
  13. Landless squatters management
  14. Royalty from natural resources
  15. Motor vehicle permits

Province no. 1 is one of the seven provinces of Nepal established by the constitution of Nepal as of 20 September 2015. Spread over the mountains, hills and the Terai, this Province includes Jhapa, Ilam, Panchthar, Taplejung, Sankhuwasabha, Terathum, Bhojpur, Dhankuta, Khotang, Sunsari, Morang, Solukhumbu, Okhaldhunga and Udaipur districts. It borders on the east with the Indian State of West Bengal and on the south by the State of Bihar, Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and Province No. 2 and Bagamati Province to the west. The total area of this Province is 25,905 sq. Km and the total population is 45,34,943 (as of 2011 Census). Biratnagar of Morang district has been designated as the temporary capital of the Province. This Province hosts 28 federal parliament constituencies and 56 for provincial assembly. There are total 137 local administrative units in this province, in which there is 1 metropolitan city, 2 sub-metropolitan cities, 46 municipalities and 88 rural municipalities. Ethnically and linguistically diverse, the region is mainly inhabited by Brahmins, Kshetris, Rais, Limbu, Tharu, Lepcha, Tamang, Gurung, Meche, Koche, Yadav, Rajvashi, among others, while Nepali, Maithili, Kirati, Tamang, Limbu, Gurung, Lepcha, Magar and Tharu languages are the major linguistic groups. This Province is profound with the world’s highest peaks, including Mt Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Choyu, Lotse, Jannu, Yalungkang and they also serve as a natural border with China.

Province No. 2 lies in the southeastern region of Nepal. It is Nepal’s second most populous Province, after Bagamati, while the smallest province by land area. It borders with Province No. 1 to the north-east, Bagamati Province to the north-west, and India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 sq KM with a population of 5,404,145 (as of 2011 Census), making it most densely populated province of Nepal. The Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province No. 2 and Province No. 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park (previously Wildlife Reserve) acts as provincial demarcation border between Province No. 2 and Province No. 3 in the west. This Province hosts eight districts- Parsa, Bara, Rautahat, Sarlahi, Siraha, Dhanusha, Saptari, Mahottari. This Province has 64 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 federal parliament constituencies. It has 136 municipal units with – one metropolis, 3 sub-metropolis, 73 municipalities and 51 rural municipalities. The majority of people in this Province speak Maithili, Bhojpuri, Bajjika and Nepali. As this Province has most alluvial and fertile land, it is cherished as food basket of Nepal. It also hosts several industrial areas and major transaction route with India. The current Capital city, Sub-metropolitan Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham is a centre for religious and cultural tourism. It is recognized as the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times. Janakpur is the temporary capital of this province. The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal. The town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province.

Bagmati Province lies in central Nepal. With Hetauda, Makawanpur District, as its provincial capital, the Province is the home to the national capital Kathmandu, is mostly hilly and mountainous, and hosts mountain peaks including Gaurishankar, Langtang, Jugal, and Ganesh. The Province covers an area of 20,300 square kilometers – about 14% of the country’s total area, and has diverse altitude enough to support deciduous, coniferous, and alpine forests and woodlands. The Province borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Province No. 1 to the east, Gandaki Pradesh to the west, and both Province No. 2 and the Indian state of Bihar to the south. Hetauda was declared as the permanent state capital on January 12, 2020. Being the most populous Province of Nepal with population of 5,529,452; it possesses rich cultural diversity with resident communities and castes including Newar, Tamang, Madhesis, Sherpa, Tharu, Chepang, Jirel, Brahmin, Chhetri and more. The districts are further divided into municipalities or rural municipalities. The municipalities include three metropolitan cities, one sub-metropolitan city and 41 municipalities. There are 74 rural municipalities in the province. The Province has 66 provincial assembly constituencies and 33 for federal parliament.

Gandaki Province lies in western part than the national capital Kathmandu. This Province consists of 11 districts – Baglung, Gorkha, Kski, Lamjung, Manang, Mustang, Myagdi, Nawalpur, Parbat, Syangja and Tanahun. Gandaki Province has a land area of 21,733 sq. KM which is 14.66% of the total area of Nepal. This province has a total area of mountainous terrain 5,819 sq KM (26.8%), hilly terrain 14,604 sq. KM. (67.2%) and the Terai terrain 1,310 sq. KM (6%). Pokhara Metropolitan City, the largest metropolis in Nepal, is also located in this state. This Province hosts 18 constituencies for federal parliament while for provincial assembly 36. Gandaki Province has 85 local levels including one metropolis, 26 municipalities and 58 rural municipalities. Similarly, there are 18 constituencies for federal parliament and 36 constituencies for Provincial Assembly. Gandaki is one of the zones, located in the Western Region of Nepal. The zone is named after the seven tributaries of Gandaki River. Pokhara, a town popular among tourists is its headquarters. The legendary Gurkhas mostly belong to this region. The province has a population of 2,403,016 which is just about 9.06% of the total population of Nepal. The population density is about 110 persons per sq KM. Gandaki is preparing to establish tourism as the province’s primary base for prosperity. Pokhara is Nepal’s number one adventure and leisure destination, a gateway to treks in the Annapurna region with plenty of entertainment for individual travellers and their families also falls under this province. The provincial government said it was also preparing to develop Gandaki as a destination for nine adventure sports. Ultra light, rafting, bungee jumping, zip flying, hot air ballooning, paragliding, canyoning, pony trekking, horse riding and skiing are the adventure tourism activities.

Province No. 5 lies in south-west of the national capital, Kathmandu. It has 12 districts -Nawalparasi (Bardaghat Susta West), Rupandehi, Kapilbastu, Palpa, Argakhanchi, Gulmi, East Rukum, Rolpa, Pyuthan, Dang, Banke and Bardiya. Of the 12 districts, six are in the hills and six in the Terai region. There are a total of 109 local levels in this state including 4 sub-metropolitan cities, 32 municipalities and 73 rural municipalities. The province has 52 provincial assembly constituencies and 26 House of Representative constituencies. The total land area of this Province is 17,810 sq. KM which is 12.1% of the total area of Nepal. According to the 2011 census, the population of this Province is 45,40,222 (17.14% of total national population). This province hosts Lumbini, the birthplace of Gautam Buddha, the pioneer of peace, Tilaurakot and many other heritages of Buddhist historical and cultural significance. Dang Valley, largest valley in Asia is also located in this province. The temporary capital of this province is Butwal, Rupendehi District. As per the data, Province 5 has contributed 16.9 percent in the country’s agriculture sector, 10.4 percent in industrial output and 11.7 percent in the service sector. Economic activities in Province 5 are more vibrant than in other provinces, going by a growth projection made public by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS)

Karnali Province lies in north-west of national capital Kathmandu. The total land area of the Province is 27,984 sq. KM, making it the largest Province in Nepal. According to the 2011 Nepal census, the population of this Province is 1,570,418, making it the least populous Province in Nepal. It borders the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, Gandaki Province to the east, Sudurpashchim Province to the west, and Province No. 5 to the south. Birendranagar, Surkhet District, with a population of 47,914, the largest city, is the Provincial capital. The province has occupied higher mountains land of north and mid-hills of Nepal. It contains Kubi Gangri, Changla and Kanjiroba mountains in the north. The Shey Phoksundo National Park with Phoksundo Lake is the largest national park of Nepal and Rara lake is the largest lake of Nepal, are the natural properties of this Province. The province has 24 provincial assembly constituencies, 12 House of Representative constituencies and eight National Assembly seats. District Administration Officer. The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities which are further divided into wards. There are 25 municipalities and 54 rural municipalities in the province. The capital and largest city of the province is Birendranagar. It is only city in the province with a population of over 50,000.

Sudurpaschim Province lies in the far-west region of Nepal. This Province consists nine districts from Mahakali and Seti Zone in erstwhile system. Geographically, it consists of all three region of mountain, hill and Terai. It occupies 19,539 sq. KM, which is 13.27% of the total area of Nepal. This province has more hilly and mountainous terrain. This Province borders with India on the west and south, with Autonomous Region of Tibet on the north, Karnali Province in the north-east and Province 5 in the east. It has a population of 2,552,517 (as of 2011 Census), which is 9.63% of total national population. It hosts 16 constituencies for federal parliament while for provincial assembly 32. The Province has one Sub-Metropolitan City, 33 Urban Municipalities and 54 Rural Municipalities, totaling 88 local governments. Nepali, Doteli ,Tharu, Baitadeli, Achhami, Bajhangi, Magar are some of the languages spoken in this province. Chhetri ( 41%), Tharu, Brahmin-hill, Kami, Thakuri, Dalit, Sarki are some of the caste and ethnic groups present in this province.