Constituent Unit

A constitutionally recognized member unit of a federation which is called by different names in different countries such as—state (India), province (Australia), canton (Switzerland), Länder (Germany), etc. In a federation there is a constitutional division of sovereign powers between the federal government and the constituent units.

Schedule

A schedule is often found as an annex of a Constitution Act or Regulation. Schedules may provide relevant details, such as an international convention enacted in the legislation, or a long list, such as a list enumerating the distribution of powers.

Inter-provincial Council

Federal countries often have an inter-provincial council or equivalent mechanism to deal with subjects like formulation of national development policy, coordination between centre and provinces for economic development, dispute resolution among the federal units, and taking decisions on matters of national importance. The Committee for Restructuring of the state and Distribution of State Power of the first Constituent Assembly had proposed the institutional arrangement of an inter-provincial council to resolve disputes between the centre and province and between provinces. If the political disputes fail to be resolved in spite of the efforts of the inter-provincial council, the matters would be forwarded to the national legislature for final decision. Intergovernmental Relations Relations between the governments of a federation i.e., amongst the governments of the constituent units or different levels of the government?with the objective of maintaining policy coordination and/or building consensus on shared programs.

Residual Powers

Residual powers are those unidentified powers that are left by a federal constitution either implicitly or explicitly to a particular order of government in contrast to explicitly assigned enumerated powers. In the United States such powers are reserved to the people or to the state.

Exclusive Jurisdiction

Areas of competence exclusively assigned to one level of government. For example, in a federal system, provinces are given exclusive power in matters listed in provincial list and national government has no power to interfere in those matters.

Executive Power

Power to enforce laws, decisions, etc., into effect (power conferred upon the executive). In some federations, the federal executive has extensive independent authority to make laws by decree or in circumstances of a national emergency.

Republic

A state in which power is held by the people and their elected representatives and which has an elected president as head of state rather than a monarch. Nepal was declared a republic on 28 May 2008.

Village Development Committee (VDC)

The third tier of government under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1990, at a village level that exercised limited local government powers.

Vertical Fiscal Imbalances

An imbalance in revenue and expenditure responsibilities between the levels of government in a federation where one level (usually federal) collects more revenues than its expenditure needs and the other does not collect enough revenue for its expenditure responsibilities.

Vertical and Horizontal Inequality

Difference in wealth and fiscal capacity vertically between levels of government and horizontally between constituent units' jurisdictions in the same sphere

Horizontal Imbalances

A situation where some constituent units, like provinces, raise more per capita revenue and provide better services than the other constituent units of the federation. Horizontal imbalances are sometimes corrected through equalization payments (see Equalization).

Separation of Power

Refers to the allocation of powers amongst the three main branches of a government (legislature, executive and judiciary) (whether federal or constituent unit). In the United States of America and Latin American federations, the term ?separation of powers? applies to the separation in the federal government between the Presidency, Supreme Court and Congress. It relates to the concept of checks and balances.

Bicameral Legislature

Bicameral legislature denotes a legislature with two Houses. Bicameral legislature is a preferred model for federal setup as it provides upper chamber for representation of constituent units. Normally upper house consists of representatives from provinces and lower house consists of members elected from nationwide general election. In some cases it may have representatives from constituent nationalities and local governments.

Secular State

A secular state is a state or a country that is officially neutral in matters of religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious system. This belief of keeping state affairs free from religion arises out of ideology of secularism.

Municipality

A local government often centered in a town or a city.

Checks and Balances

A mechanism in some systems of government whereby three branches of government (legislative, executive and judiciary) make each other accountable within the limits of their respective jurisdiction or share decisions (e.g. over budgets or key appointments).

Devolution

A process by which administrative, executive, legislative and fiscal powers are given to constituent units. Devolution differs from federalism in that the devolved powers may be repealed, that is taken back to the centre by the central government by ordinary legislation. It is different from decentralization in the sense that devolution involves transfer of political powers whereas decentralization is usually the transfer of administrative or fiscal powers.

Judiciary

The branch of government that is endowed with the authority to interpret the law, adjudicates legal disputes, and otherwise administers justice.

Subsidiarity

The principle that powers should be exercised at the lowest level of government at which they can efficiently be exercised.

Competitive Federalism

A type of federalism where the federal government and constituent units vie for loyalty of citizens, try to induce them on the basis of their strengths and incentives, and compete for a larger role.

Provincial Head

Provincial head means the head of a province such as governor of a province. Provincial head is also a head of provincial government if it has presidential model of government at the level of province. A provincial head however will be only nominal head if it has the parliamentary model of government at the level of province. In such system chief minister is the head of government and governor is only a nominal head of province.

Administrative Federalism

In administrative federalism the federal (national) level sets legal standards and defines policies in certain areas while federal law and federal policies are often implemented and administered by the constituent units, which themselves may make laws and regulations consistent with the federal laws. This type of federalism is practiced in Germany.

Natural Resources

Resources supplied by nature. These are commonly sub-divided into non-renewable resources, such as minerals and fossil fuels, and renewable (when properly managed) natural resources, including water, wind, fisheries, and agricultural land.

Restructuring of the State

It is the re-arranging of the political structure of a state. It may provide access to the state structures and decision-making to every section of society, particularly to the excluded and marginalized groups. The Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2007 states that the restructuring of the state shall be as follows: ?To make an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the state, by ending the existing centralized and unitary structure of the state so as to address the problems including those of women, Dalits, indigenous people, Madhesi, oppressed, excluded and minority communities and disadvantaged regions, while at the same time doing away with discrimination based on class, caste, language, gender, culture, religion and region? (Article 33(d)). In Nepal's context restructuring of the state also means federalization of the present unitary structure of the state.

National Assembly

It is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries. In federations it usually refers to a legislative house of the federal government, but sometimes the title is used for a provincial legislature such as that of Canada?s province of Quebec. In the 1990 Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal the upper house of the bicameral parliament was called Rastriya Sabha or National Assembly.

Decentralization

A process of governance where constituent units exercise administrative, legislative and/or fiscal authority. The process is also defined as the transfer of political, administrative and territorial authority from central government to lower levels of government.

Fiscal Imbalance

Fiscal imbalance means mismatch in fiscal capacities, i.e., revenue generating powers and expenditure responsibilities of a government in terms of either surplus or deficiencies of resources relative to the responsibilities. The situation is created when assigned responsibilities produce disparity between revenue raising abilities and expenditure requirements. The first CA Committee draft report on Natural Resources, Economic Rights and Revenue Allocation proposed that the central government should distribute a financial equity grants to the provincial and local governments on the basis of their needs of expenditure, and their efforts and capacity for revenue generation. The provincial governments shall, from the grant as provided by the central government, and revenue collected from its sources, distribute financial equity grant among the local governments, as determined by law, on the basis of their needs for expenditure, and their efforts and capacity for revenue generation.

Fiscal Transfer

Fiscal transfer refers to transfer of resources from the central government to the sub-national governments. It is required when assigned responsibilities produce disparities between revenue raising abilities and expenditure requirements. The first CA Committee draft report on Natural Resources, Economic Rights and Revenue Allocation proposed that a Finance Commission be formed to recommend the amount of fi scal transfer to be received by the provincial and local governments.

Fiscal Federalism

An arrangement and practice regarding taxation, spending, borrowing and other regulatory functions, as well as inter-governmental transfers amongst different orders of government within a federation.

Equitable Distribution

Equitable distribution refers to fairness or just sharing of income, wealth and resources among each government units in a federation. The concept considers an egalitarian view of resource allocation.

Concurrent Jurisdiction

Areas of competence concurrently assigned to more than one level of government. Both the levels of government have power to legislate on the matters listed in concurrent list. The Concurrent list includes subjects such as mining, forestry, water ways and civil aviation. In case of conflict of laws on concurrent subject, federal law prevails over provincial law.

Consolidated Fund

Consolidated fund is a fund provided for in the constitution or the statute which cannot be used without the approval of the parliament. The revenue collected, loans raised and income generated are kept under it. The first CA Committee draft report on Natural Resources, Economic Rights and Revenue Allocation recommends the establishment of a consolidated fund at all levels of the government: federal, provincial and the local.

Cooperative Federalism

A type of federalism in which constituent units and the central authority agree to share responsibilities of policy formulation and service delivery. Cooperative federalism is often contrasted with competitive federalism.

Sovereignty

The principle that the state exercises absolute power over its territory and population. It also includes the freedom of a state to determine its foreign relations with other states and be a member of international organizations.

Statutory

Of, relating to, enacted or regulated by a statute. Understood also as status as in ?statutory matters?.

Constitutionalism

A belief in limited government. It also means constitutional governance with supremacy of laws, compliance of statutory provisions by the State and institutionalization of methods of conflict resolution through legal rational means. It also means abiding by the rule of law and absence of arbitrary power exercised by the government.

Constitutional Court

A constitutional court is a judicial institution which has authority to give a final decision on constitutional issues and is the final interpretation of constitution. Often a constitutional court is vested with the powers such as judicial review, protection of fundamental rights of citizens, decision on disputes related to election, and resolution of disputes between federal units. As proposed by the Committee for Restructuring of the state and Distribution of State Power of the first CA, the constitutional court of Nepal would look into the cases which involve issues relating to authorities allocated by the constitution between centre and province, between one province and another, between province and local government, between province and autonomous region; and also the cases that require interpretation of constitution or judicial review.

District Assembly

An assembly of elected chairperson, vice chairperson, mayor and deputy mayor of local level units (rural municipalities, municipalities, sub metropolitian cities and metropolitan cities) at the district level. It is mandated to make coordination between the Village Bodies and Municipalities within the district.

Village/Municipal Assembly

The legislative powers of the Local Level are vested in the Village/ Municpal Assembly. An Assembly generally consists of the Chairperson or mayor and Vice-Chairpersonor vice mayor of the Village/ Muncipal Executive, Ward Chairpersons, and four members elected from each ward and Members of the Village/Municpal Executive elected from Dalit and minority communities with representation of two women members from each ward.

District coordination Committee

It is the executive arm of the District Assembly. The assembly elects the members of the District Coordination Committee consisting of a maximum of nine Members including one Chief, one Deputy Chief, at least three women and at least one Dalit or minority. The District Coordination Committee shall discharge all functions required to be discharged by the District Assembly. It is elected through indirect election from electoral collage consisting of district assembly members.

Judicial Committee

A committee formed at the local level executives in order to settle disputes through reconciliation under their respective jurisdictions in accordance with law.Each local level has a three-member judicial committee to be coordinated by its Vice- Chairperson in the case of a Village Body and by its Deputy Mayor in the case of a Municipality. The judicial committee consists of two members elected by the members of the Village Assembly or the Municipal Assembly from amongst themselves. The judicial committee can settle disputes relating to land boundary, water sources, crops destroyed, unpaid labour, common property, not providing access to education for children and elders, and similar issues at the community level.

Amend

Change a part of or major parts of a law, including a constitution. How to change a law will be in the constitution or the rules of parliament. It is possible that “amendment” does not include replacing the entire constitution.

Basic Structure

An expression used to convey the meaning that certain features of the constitution are so fundamental that they could not be changed even by the procedure that usually allows constitutional changes.

Constitution

A set of rules that govern the basic structure and operation of institutions of governance in a state. In a modern constitution the rules will also provide for the basic rights of people within the state, and may include some guiding principles for national laws and policies more generally. In most countries the word refers to a particular enactment that contains those rules. But some countries have no enactment that is called the constitution, a few have several that together make up the constitution, and in a few the constitution comprises a mixture of conventions and laws.

Promulgation

The formal act of bringing a document into legal effect, or the act of making public a law or document that is already complete.

Federalism

Federalism refers to a broad category of political systems in which, by contrast with the single central source of political and legal authority in unitary systems, there are two or more constitutionally established orders of government, each directly elected, and each order having some autonomy from the other in terms of the powers assigned to it. Th e system combines elements of shared rule (collaborative partnership) through a common government and regional self-rule (constituent unit autonomy) for the governments of the constituent units.

Interlocked Governance

A model of federalism characterized by shared jurisdiction in certain areas between the federal government and the constituent units, in which each level of government must obtain the agreement of the other level to establish or implement policy. Germany is an example where federal laws implemented by the Länder (constituent units) require the consent of a weighted majority of the Länder.

Intergovernmental relations

Relations between the governments of a federation i.e., amongst the governments of the constituent units or diff erent levels of the government—with the objective of maintaining policy coordination and/or building consensus on shared programs.

Inter governmental coordination

Arrangements between two or more governments for achieving common goals, ensuring service delivery or to resolve common problems. It also means making arrangements for the sustenance of ongoing working relationships regarding administrative and policy-making works between/and within diff erent levels of the government in a federation, which need not necessarily be enshrined in the constitution.

Protection of Minorities

It involves constitutional and statutory provisions of guaranteeing fundamental freedoms of minority groups. It also involves the representation of linguistic, cultural or other minority groups at various levels and bodies of the government. In a federal system of governance, however, the protection of minorities also means ensuring constitutional measures for the right of selfgovernance to those groups.

Residual Powers

Those unidentified powers that are left by a federal constitution either implicitly or explicitly to a particular order of government in contrast to explicitly assigned enumerated powers. In the United States such powers are reserved to the people or to the state.

Enumerated Powers

The powers of making law for specifi c areas that are explicitly assigned to one or more levels of government in a federation. Th ese are distinct from residual powers which are for areas that are not specifi ed but are typically assigned to just one order of government.

Asymmetric Federalism

A type of federalism where constituent units have different sets of rights and obligations which are not necessarilyequal. It refers particularly to some constituent units having more powers than other constituent units and this may be done constitutionally or through ordinary laws.

Disaggragation Federalism

A federal system formed when a unitary state transforms itself into a federation by forming autonomous constituent units.

Self Determination

In modern international law, right to self-determination may be defi ned as a concept of self rule of a particular community. Th is may not equate to a right to nationhood, but at a minimum ensures the right of a people to preserve its language and heritage.

Single Identity based Federalism

The concept of single identity-based federalism entails the idea that federal units are designed to give one dominant single-identity group a majority status in each of the given federal units. Basically, in a single-identity based federalism, these groups would also have special priority rights both in relation to government positions and in relation to the use of natural resources (see also Ethnic Federalism and Identity based federalism)

Exclusive Jurisdiction

Areas of competence exclusively assigned to one level of government. For example, in a federal system, provinces are given exclusive power in matters listed in provincial list and national government has no power to interfere in those matters.

Executive Federalism

A type of federalism that tends to be dominated by the executive branches such as heads of government and cabinets. The role of legislatures is downplayed in this type of federalism. It can be particularly strong in parliamentary traditions of federations, where the executives of each government are supported by majorities in their legislatures and the legislatures are highly likely to adopt decisions agreed upon by their executives.

Expenditure responsibilities

Responsibilities of each level of government in a decentralized system of governance for delivering goods and services, administering the service delivery, fi nancing a service and setting standards, regulations or policies guiding the provision of government services. Most federal constitutions are written in terms of legislative responsibilities and the expenditure responsibilities are implicitly linked to these. However, some federations explicitly indicate which order of government shall administer programs, often in a context of concurrent legislative power.

adibasi-janajiti concept

The adibasi-janajiti concept seems to lay emphasis on three factors: (a) historical continuity of settlement (that-thalo in Nepali) and association with a specific geographical area; (b) a common historic system of economic production distinctly different from that of the mainstream; and (c) political, economic, social, and cultural exclusion and discrimination with respect to language, culture and so forth, including the hegemony of a different language and culture.(Source: State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2014 UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf)

Administarative structure

The people and pathways used to facilitate decisions and approvals. (Source: A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf)

aid

Provided by international development partners. Basically dealt by federal government. (Source: local level annual budget planning guideline 2074, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/budget_guideline.pdf)

annual plan

This aims at planning for a year which is basic on fiscal year. (Source: Local Level planning guidelines, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/local_final1.pdf)

autonomy

It is the quality or state of being self-governing. (Source: A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf)

Autonomous Region

Autonomous Region shall mean area having domination of a particular ethnic or lingual community to be established within the state. an area with majority of an ethnicity/community or linguistic community or with dense population within a Province shall be maintained as an autonomous region. (Source: commmittee on State Restructure and Power, CA http://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/concept_paper_restructuring_state_gtz_eng.pdf)

Bicameralism

Bicameral system, also called bicameralism, a system of government in which the legislature comprises two houses.(Source: Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf)

Block Transfer

Funds disbursed from a federal government to the constituent units for discharge of constitutional or other legal responsibilities in a given sector (e.g. health, education) without being subjected to detailed conditions regarding how they are to be spent.(Source: Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/)

Block Transfer

Funds disbursed from a federal government to the constituent units for discharge of constitutional or other legal responsibilities in a given sector (e.g. health, education) without being subjected to detailed conditions regarding how they are to be spent. (Source: Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/)

budget management

It shows the management's operating plan in auantitative terms for the coming period. (Source: local level annual budget planning guideline 2074, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/budget_guideline.pdf )

Borrowing Powers

Borrowing power is assigned to subnational government to raise their own loans from either federal government or other agencies. Federal systems vary in the extent to which they permit subnational governments to incur debts and the extent to which they guarantee such debts. A federal guarantee of debts can protect subnational governments from bankruptcy but may also encourage a lax approach to borrowing and spending unless such guarantees are accompanied by federal supervision of subnational budgets. (Source: Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf)

budget management

It shows the management's operating plan in auantitative terms for the coming period. ( Source: local level annual budget planning guideline 2074, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/budget_guideline.pdf )

capacity

Legal compentency or fitness of a person or any government entities. (Source: Legal compentency or fitness of a person or any government entities. )

Chief Minister

Generally, Chief Minister is the head of council of ministers at the level of province in a federal setup with parliamentary model of government. Chief Minister is the head of the government and is elected by and accountable to the provincial legislature. (Source: Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/)

co-existence

The fact of living or existing together at the same time or in the same place on the issues related to mutual jurisdiction among local bodies. (Source: local level planning process, freedom forum pocket book http://freedomforum.org.np/download/informative-pocketbook-of-local-level-planning-process/?wpdmdl=4108&refresh=5f07cff03a7871594347504)

collaboration

The situation of two or more people/organization working together to create or achieve the same thing which counts projects at local level ( Source: local level planning process, freedom forum pocket book http://freedomforum.org.np/download/informative-pocketbook-of-local-level-planning-process/?wpdmdl=4108&refresh=5f07cff03a7871594347504)

Competitive Federalsim

In competitive federal systems, national and sub national institutions regard themselves as fundamentally distinct institutions, overlapping in territorial jurisdiction but occupying separate legal spheres; in principle, each gets on with its own business while ignoring the other (Source: Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf)

Complematry grants

Complementary grants are given by federal government to sub national governments as a percentage contribution to a national level programs/projects implemented at the sub national level. (Source: fiscal Federalism in Nepal: Challenges and Opportunities R K Shah Tribhuwan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/TUJ/article/view/25559 )

complementary/ matching grants

Grants provided by GoN to provinces or local units to conduct a plan on infrastructure development. Feasibility, cost, results or gains from the plan, financial and material capacity or human resources required for implementation, and the necessity and priority of the project are taken into consideration when providing a matching grant. The matching grant is provided as a certain proportion of the total cost of the project. (Source: National Natural Resources and Fiscal commission https://www.nnrfc.gov.np/categories/reports)

Federal Affairs

Relating to a form of government or a country in which power is divided between one central and several regional governments.

Weak State

A ‘weak state’ is one that does not have the ”capacities to penetrate society, regulate social relationships, extract resources, and appropriate or use resources in determined ways” (Heir & Robinson, 2007). "The Federalism Debate in Nepal Volume II UNDP https://un.info.np/Net/NeoDocs/View/4412"

Vertical fiscal imbalance

Vertical fiscal imbalance refers to surplus resources relative to responsibilities at one tier of government usually the federal government and corresponding deficiencies of resources relative to responsibilities at the sub national level of government; usully state and local level. "fiscal Federalism in Nepal: Challenges and Opportunities R K Shah Tribhuwan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/TUJ/article/view/25559 "

Vertical and Horizontal Inequality

Difference in wealth and fi scal capacity vertically between levels of government and horizontally between constituent units' jurisdictions in the same sphere."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms"

Unitarism

Unitarism is the belief in one central source of power and authority. A unitary state is a state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.""Federalism: The Concept, Development and Future Prof. Dr. Dragan Bataveljić December 2012] International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciencehttp://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_24_Special_Issue_December_2012/4.pdf""

Under representation

A situation where a group has comparatively less representation than the strength of such group in the general population. For example, women are often under- represented in the legislature, the executive and the judiciary of many countries."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Taxable and Non taxable Sources of revenue

Those sources of revenue from which local level units directly raise taxes like property tax, house rent tax, entertainmanet tax, advertisement tax, business tax etc are called taxable sources of revenue. Local levels also raise revenue from various service they offer like - services charge, tourism fees, registration fees, fines, royalties and penalty etc which are non taxable sources of revenue for local level units. "FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

tax administration

The job of managing financial tasks for the government entity by controlling the budget, writing financial reports and providing money to the projects. " local levels in federalism, Independent citizens. https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Local-Levels-in-Federalism_Constitutional-Provisions-and-the-State-of-Implementation-English-Version.pdf"

Subjective Transfer

In order to execute functions local government needs budgetary support, legal support and human resources support from central and federal agencies. Transfers of such supports by Ministries at the federal and provincial level to local level is called Subjective transfer. "FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

state restructuring

Generally speaking, state restructuring refers to the reorganisation of the existing state structure of any given country to achieve certain objectives. The purpose of state restructuring is multi-faceted. In most instances, restructuring is pursued to create a more logical organisation in which the state can perform its mandate and fulfil its responsibilities more efficiently and effectively."The Federalism Debate in Nepal Volume II UNDP https://un.info.np/Net/NeoDocs/View/4412"

spill-over jurisdiction

Spillover is an economic event in one context that occurs because of something else in a seemingly unrelated context. "A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf"

Special region

The geographical region established with a view to develop an area that does not fall within the purview of an autonomous or protected region and is backward and left out in terms of economic and social conditions will be considered a special region. It has been proposed that the demarcation of such a region, its name and jurisdiction will be determined by the concerned provincial government by making necessary laws."Concept of State Restructure and Division of State power Concept paper http://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/concept_paper_restructuring_state_gtz_eng.pdf"

special grants

Grants provided by the GoN to provinces and local units for specific projects conducted to develop and deliver basic services like education, health, and drinking water to carry out balanced development of inter-provincial and inter-local levels, and advance or develop economically and socially discriminated classes or communities. There is a provision that provinces can also provide special grants to local units by making provincial legislation. "National Natural Resources and Fiscal commission https://www.nnrfc.gov.np/categories/reports"

Special autonomy

Special autonomy means giving certain exclusive rights to certain areas/ jurisdictions within larger country. In some cases, these areas/ jurisdiction that enjoys a privileged semi-detached status in relation to the larger country of which it is a part or to which it belongs. The degree of autonomy enjoyed by the jurisdiction, in terms of the range of powers it possesses and the control it has over its own finances, is usually extensive, but its degree of integration into the central state is low."Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Self rule

" Self rule means self government where people have the right to set the governance processes within their geographical boundaries. In context of federalism it means lower units of government are constitutionally provisioned to govern themselves. Self rule is exercised within the scope set by the Constitution. It doesn't however means right to self determination in which case the constituent units may go upto seccession. """Bhattachan, K.B. (2012). ‘Indigenous people’s right to self-determination in Nepal.’ In Mishra, C. & Gurung, OP (Eds) Ethnicity and Federalisation in Nepal. Kathmandu: Central Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Tribhuvan Universit: 139–165."

revenues

Revenue is the income generated from all the service providers in all level of governments. "Local Level planning guidelines, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/local_final1.pdf"

revenue sharing

The sharing of revenue collected by a government of a certain tier with governments of other tiers to address the expenditure responsibilities of various tiers. "NNRFC https://www.nnrfc.gov.np/categories/reports"

revenue generation Plan

Local units should devise plan to improve the revenue from taxable and non taxable sources in their jurisdiction. This is called Revenue Generation Plan. Local units can either change the scope of taxes or its rates to effect improvement in its revenue. It includes devising policy, Guidelines, Insitututional structure, and capacity development. "FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

Resource Perspective of federalism

A perspective which looks at the viability of sub national regions based on the availability of resources avaialble within the geographical jurisdiction of the specified sub national region. Incase of Nepal, it is widely acknowledged that provinces proposed in the tarai are economically viable even at the formative phase and provinces proposed in hills are rich in natural resources which mean these are potentially viable as well."State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2009 UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

Residual System

In a residual system the powers of one tier of government are defined with those not defined resting in another tier. According to this principle, the centre gives certain rights to the provinces and reserves the rest or specifies its rights and gives the rest to the provinces. United States and Switzerland have specified the rights of the federal government and left the rest to the provinces"Concept of State Restructure and Division of State power Concept paper http://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/concept_paper_restructuring_state_gtz_eng.pdf"

representation

Government, the state, fact, or right of being represented by delegates having a voice in legislation or government. "A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf"

Province

A term to describe a territorial constituent unit within a federation."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/:"

Proportional representation

Systems of voting which aim to give parties the representation in a parliament justified by their level of support among the electorate. The support is understood by the total votes a party gets considering whole country as one constituency. "FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

project bank

Collection of projects from different sector to implement on the basis of priority. "Local Level planning guidelines, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/local_final1.pdf"

Principle of Subsidarity

Th e principle that powers should be exercised at the lowest level of government at which they can effi ciently be exercised. Some countries adopt this principle through devolution of power."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

principal agent problem

The principal-agent theory of organizations (“agency theory” from here on) encapsulates the idea that public sector performance can be improved if incentive-based contracts between different actors are implemented. Principals will be more likely to achieve their desired outcomes, while agents will have clarity around work programs and goals. The central dilemma explored by principal agent theorists is how to stimulate the employee or contractor (agent) to behave in the best interests of the principal (the employer) when the employee or contractor has an informational advantage over the principal and has different interests from the principal. ""Principal agent theory of organizations Robin Gauld Gauld, Robin. (2007). Principal-agent theory and organisational change. Policy Studies. 28. 17-34. 10.1080/01442870601121395.""

prime political rights

First rights in natural resources and preferential rights in governance of the state given to any specific groups which have reside in the area for a long time annd have been facing discrimminaton.""The Federalism Debate in Nepal Volume II UNDP https://un.info.np/Net/NeoDocs/View/4412""

Power sharing

This term is used to describe a system of governance in which all or some groups of society, usually defined along territorial, ethnic, racial, linguistic or religious lines, are guaranteed a permanent share of power. Power-sharing arrangements include guaranteed political representation in public institutions, protection of minority rights or group rights, federalism or consociationalism. It also implies sharing of power by various political parties in a parliamentary system. In federal structures, horizontal power-sharing refers to division of power between diff erent components of a federal system while vertical power-sharing is the division of power between diff erent levels of government. "Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Pluralization of Governance

One of the principles of federalism that implies a process of multilevel governance in which the smaller units retain their autonomy, that is, their right of self-government and they are represented at the center."https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2005/Verrelli.pdf"

Pluralism

Pluralism is, in a general sense, the acknowledgment of diversity. It is a management of social diversity without discriminating against any caste/ethnicity, religion, language, cultural and region. In democratic politics, pluralism is a guiding principle which permits the peaceful coexistence of diff erent interests, convictions and lifestyles. It allows competition among the political parties professing diff erent philosophy, i.e. liberalism, socialism, communism. In Nepalese constitution making process, pluralism appeared as a contested term in incorporating in the constitution under-making; hence the term plurality was agreed interchangeable to pluralism."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

National Natural resource and fiscal commission

This commission is responsible for fixing the inter governmental fiscal transfer from federal to lower government based on projected sources of revenue and expenditure requirements. The commission has prepared vertical and horizontal distribution of economic and revenue rights among federal, state and local government and fiscal management, formula for preparation of grants."fiscal Federalism in Nepal: Challenges and Opportunities R K Shah Tribhuwan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/TUJ/article/view/25559 "

mutual jurisdiction

It is an agreement, mutual assents between two or more local or provincial bodies on taxation and other issues of administration. " local levels in federalism, Independent citizens. https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Local-Levels-in-Federalism_Constitutional-Provisions-and-the-State-of-Implementation-English-Version.pdf"

Multiple- Identity Federalism

"In multiple identity-based federalism; federal units are comprised to include more than one ethnic group, and are named in such a way as to refl ect the province’s multi- ethnic composition. Each of the groups within the province isconsidered equal, and none are given priority rights of any kind. In this way, multiple-identity based federalism theoretically protects the interests of ‘minorities within minorities’ as well as non-territorial based groups’ interests.""Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Millet System

A concept used to refer to giving non territorial federal rights to certain groups. In the Ottoman Empire, the Muslim elite ruled over a multiplicity of different ethnic and religious groups, but allowed some degree of de termination to the non-Muslim minorities. As a result, community leaders represented the Jewish, Armenian and Orthodox population before the Ottoman government, and these groups had certain liberty to establish their own laws.""Challenges in the Nepalese Constitutional Process: Federalism, Ethnicity and Representation Author(s): Aurora Sanchez Palacio Source: Verfassung und Recht in Übersee / Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America , 2015, Vol. 48, No. 2 (2015), pp. 165-186""

Medium Term Expenditure Framework

The MTEF is annual, rolling three year-expenditure planning. It sets out the medium-term expenditure priorities and hard budget constraints against which sector plans can be developed and refined. MTEF also contains outcome criteria for the purpose of performance monitoring. MTEF together with the annual Budget Framework Paper provides the basis for annual budget planning."FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

Manifesto

A public declaration of a party's ideas and policies, usually printed during the campaign. Once in power, a government is often judged by how many of its manifesto promises it manages to deliver."FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

Mandated sharing of revenues

This is an arrangement whereby one level of government sets and levies taxes, but where the revenues raised from those taxes are then distributed, according to some prescribed or agreed formula, between two or more levels of government"Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

long term plan

This type of plans aimed for 15-25 years which can be national pride project for country's development. "Local Level planning guidelines, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/local_final1.pdf"

Local self government

Government of an area smaller than the territory of a federation or a constituent unit of a federation. This may be called a village, town, city, county, district or region. True self-government implies a democratically elected body representing the local inhabitants with suffi cient autonomy and resources to pursue locally determined priorities."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Local Government/ Local level units

The federal republic of Nepal is divided into 753 local government units called municipalities. The Constitution of the federal republic of Nepal 2015 has given 22 areas of juridcitions to these local government units in which they can form their own rules and administer accordingly. There are 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub metropolitan cities, 276 urban municipalities and 460 rural municipalities. "Krishna Archarya (2018). Local Governance Restructuring in Nepal: From Government to Governmentality . Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 12 , 37-49. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/DSAJ/article/view/22178 "

Local Consolidated Fund

All income of a local level units needs to be deposited in one Fu"FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"nd called Local Consolidated Fund as provisioned in the clause 229 of the Constitution of Nepal 2015 and clause 60 of Local Government Operation Act 2074. The expenditure from the fund can be incurred after framing local level laws. However payments or expenses cannot be made directly from the Local Consolidated Fund. Other subsidairy and specific purpose Fund should be created from which expenses are made.

Jurisdiction

The territorial or legislative fields over which an order of government, including the judiciary, has the authority to make laws."Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Interlocked Governance

A model of federalism characterized by shared jurisdiction in certain areas between the federal government and the constituent units, in which each level of government must obtain the agreement of the other level to establish or implement policy. Germany is an example where federal laws implemented by the Länder (constituent units) require the consent of a weighted majority of the Länder."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Interdependence Perspective of federalism

"Federalism is a system that promotes interdependence among the provinces. In one way or another, provinces are dependent on each other. Some provinces may be rich in one particular area and others in different sector. Exchanges of skills, resources, and productions among the provinces will produce a system of interdependence among the federal units.""State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2012 UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

Inter State Council

A council formed to resolve any conflict between provinces as well to develop shared knowledge amongst them. This council is usually headed by the elected head of the federal government. "https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2005/Verrelli.pdf"

Integrated Property tax

Taxes levied by local level units in all forms of property (house and land and others) within their physical jurisdictions is called Integrated Property tax."FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

implied powers

Those competencies that are usually not clearly mentioned in the constitution but developed in the case law by the judiciary."UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

Horizontal fiscal imbalance

Horizontal fiscal imbalance refers to the differences in the ability of provinces and local bodies to raise revenue relative to their responsibilities. "fiscal Federalism in Nepal: Challenges and Opportunities R K Shah Tribhuwan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/TUJ/article/view/25559 "

holding-together-federalism

This concept implies a system of federalism where power is devolved to lower levels from the unitary state with the objective to hold together its parts often characterized with differentiated levels of political, economic and social development and representation. Generally applicable to state which tries to address its internal problems related to unequal representation and conflicts etc."Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

guidelines

Information intended to advise how something should be done. Like; Budget guidelines by NPC. A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf:A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf"

Guideline on work execution of local units

Guideline adopted by local level units specifying the process and agencies involved in execution of certain functions of local level in accordance with the clause 218 of the Constitution of Nepal 2015 . The Guideline specifically defines work processes and structure to accomplish certain tasks. "FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

Geographical contiguity.

Geographic contiguity is the characteristic in geography of political or geographical land divisions, as a group, not being interrupted by other land or water. Such divisions are referred to as being contiguous. Geographic contiguity is also an adopted basis for federal division of the state. "State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2008 /UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

General Grants

Transfers of grants from federal government directly to constituent units as part of their consolidated grants that are not earmarked for specific activities."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Full Fiscal Autonomy

Full fiscal autonomy is an arrangement whereby subnational legislatures raise all of their own financial resources through their own taxes, charges, fees and loans, and they each pay for their own administrative costs and public services out of their own budgets. The federal government does not have its own tax-collecting powers, but requires subnational governments to make payments to defray the costs of shared services."Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Franchise

The right to vote."constitutionmakingforpeace.org/glossary/"

fiscal tranfers

An arrangement for financial transfers in the form of revenue sharing, royalty sharing and grants as per the recommendation of the National Natural Resources and Fiscal Commission by the GoN to provinces and local units and from provincial governments to local units."National Natural Resources and Fiscal commission https://www.nnrfc.gov.np/categories/reports"

fiscal equalisation

Financial grants given to provinces and local units by the Government of Nepal based on the gap between the latter’s expenditure responsibilities and revenue capacity; and financial grants given by provinces to all local units within its territory based on the expenditure and revenue capacity of the local unit as per the recommendation of the NNRFC. "National Natural Resource and Fiscal Commission https://www.nnrfc.gov.np/categories/reports"

fiscal discipline

It is a practice to obey rules or standards related to public expenditure. "Local Level planning guidelines, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/local_final1.pdf"

Fiscal Decentralization

Fiscal decentralization involves transferring expenditure and revenue responsibilities from the central government to sub national governnments."fiscal Federalism in Nepal: Challenges and Opportunities R K Shah Tribhuwan University https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/TUJ/article/view/25559 "

fiscal council

It is an independent body set up by a government to evaluate its expenditure and tax policy. " local levels in federalism, Independent citizens. https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/Local-Levels-in-Federalism_Constitutional-Provisions-and-the-State-of-Implementation-English-Version.pdf"

First Past the Post

An electoral system in which the one who receives more votes than any other candidate gets elected.Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Federation

A federation or federal state is an institutional union which entails formation of a new state which differs from its member states. In a federation, a superior state exists, having its legislative, executive and judicial power. A federation is neither an international union, nor a structure of international law. In a federation, "primacy" belongs to the federal constitution, particularly as the member states, when adopting their constitutions, decide on the basic principles of the federal constitution. According to this, sovereignty belongs to the central government, but not to the member states""Federalism: The Concept, Development and Future Prof. Dr. Dragan Bataveljić December 2012] International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciencehttp://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_24_Special_Issue_December_2012/4.pdf""

federal spirit

A termed coined by Michael Burgess referring to a sense of partnership among the parties to the federal compact manifested through negotiated cooperation on issues and programmes and based on a commitment to open bargaining between all parties in such a way as to strive for consensus or, failing that, an accommodation that protects the fundamental integrity of all partners. ""Burgess, M. (2013). In search of the federal spirit: New theoretical and empirical perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://www.academia.edu/10171876/State_Restructuring_and_Federalism_Discourse_in_Nepal""

Federal judiciary

A system in a federation to settle disputes arising under the laws of different levels of government is called federal judicial system. It could be a dual system or an integrated system. In a dual system, provincial governments and national government have diff erent sets of courts to settle disputes arising under provincial law and federal law. In an integrated system the same set of courts settle disputes arising under the laws of both levels of government."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Federal Governments

The central government of a federated state. A federal government may be named in diff erent ways such as national government in South Africa, Commonwealth government in Australia, Union government in India, and federal government in the United States of America and Nepal."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Federal Consolidated Fund

The national account of Government of Nepal "FAQs on Local Governments in nepal https://mofaga.gov.np/uploads/notices/2018-08/combinepdf (2)_0.pdf"

Federal Budget

A detailed, formal statement of the federal government's planned expenditures and anticipated receipts for the upcoming year , usually submitted to and approved by the legislature. It includes sources of revenue, intergovernmental transfers and expenditures."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Federal Constitutional Courts

The final court of appeal with decisive power of resolving constitutional issues. In some federations, constitutional issues are judges by the country’s Supreme Court."Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Federacy

"A term which refers to political arrangements where a smaller unit or units are linked to a larger unitary or federal polity, but the smaller unit or units retain considerable autonomy except over foreign affairs and defence, have a minimum role in the management of the larger one, and the relationship can be dissolved only by mutual agreement. Examples include Puerto Rico and the Northern Marianas in relation to the United States of America.""Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Failed State

A ‘failed state’ is a state in which developmental and governmental ineptitude has become so entrenched that it fails to live up to the universal expectations of a state in the contemporary world.""The Federalism Debate in Nepal Volume II UNDP https://un.info.np/Net/NeoDocs/View/4412""

Exit polling

Exit polling is the polling of voters immediately after they have exited the polling stations. Exit polls are conducted to give an early indication of how an election has turned out.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Existence Perspective of federalism

A perspective which looks at the viability of sub national regions based on its political relavance. Incase of Nepal, provinces of federal state can be unequal, some will be relatively developed and others underdeveloped. But one cannot deny the political relevance of the existence of poor provinces. No doubt some provinces will be resource deficit but we cannot deny the value of these areas to be existed as distinct political units, provinces."State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2010 UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

Excluded community

Excluded community means the community which has not been included into the State power because of caste, linguistic, economic, social, religious, cultural, sexual, regional discrimination and exploitation or because of physical or mental incapacity or disability."Concept Paper: Miniroity rights"

Ethnic Identity

"The quality or condition of being the same in culture, language, origin, nature, properties or in particular qualities under consideration absolute or essential sameness. The construction of identities uses building materials from history, geography, collective memory, personal fantasies, power apparatuses, and religious revelations.""State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2013 UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

Ethnic enclaves

Ethnic enclaves can enjoy some forms of carefully crafted socioeconomic and cultural autonomy (schooling, language rights and cultural practices) without jeopardizing the ethnic harmony and territorial integrity of the nation". Much similar in conception to Autonomous region""The Federalism Debate in Nepal Volume II UNDP https://un.info.np/Net/NeoDocs/View/4412""

eternity clause/ immutable provisions

Eternity clause sets the principle of federalism as an unamendable provision in the constitution. In certain cases, even courts may identify certain provisions of the constitution as unamendable. "Federalism Primer 12 IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/federalism-primer.pdf"

Equalization Payments

Revenue transfers from the federal government (and sometimes from richer constituent units) to off set differences in revenue-raising capacity and sometimes expenditure needs of constituent units."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Equalization Grants

Transfer of resources from the federal government to constituent units based on their relative expenditure needs of the constituents. "Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Equalization Perspective of federalism

the equalization perspective: It is a mechanism for reducing the financial gap between developed and underdeveloped provinces by enhaning capability over the years by a system of economic equalization, an indispensable part of a federal system.. The centre extracts more revenues from a developed province and distributes more resources to least developed provinces."State Restructuring in Nepal: Context, Rationale and Possibilities pitamber sharma 2011 UNDP_NP_SPCBN_the-federalism-debate-in-nepal.pdf"

Equalization

"Redistribution of revenues within a federation to provide a minimum equitable standard of resources for constituent units and thus to ensure citizens to have a comparable level of government services regardless of their place of residence. Equalization is the scheme to normalize imbalances among the provinces. This formula is primarily based on the system of maintaining equitable distribution of government services regardless of citizens' place of residence. The draft report of the Thematic Committee on Natural Resources, Economic Rights and Revenue Allocation of the first Constitutent Assembly provided the equalization responsibility to the central government to distribute financial equity grants to the provincial and local governments on the basis of expenditure needs, and capacity and efforts to revenue generation.""Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Entitlement

A constitutional provision, government policy or program that guarantees and provides benefi ts to a particular group."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Entitlement

A constitutional provision, government policy or program that guarantees and provides benefi ts to a particular group."Forum Fed, http://www.forumfed.org/publications/english-nepali-glossary-of-federalism-terms/"

Election

An election is a democratic procedure through which one or more persons are chosen as executives or representatives in certain bodies.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Election

An election is a democratic procedure through which one or more persons are chosen as executives or representatives in certain bodies.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Efficiency Federalism

Efficiency federalism occurs when a culturally homogeneous but geographically large nation wishes to improve democratic representation and accountability by decentralizing power and giving greater control over resources and policies to local people while maintaining national unity and the ability to act coherently in matters of national policy""Federalism: The Concept, Development and Future Prof. Dr. Dragan Bataveljić December 2012] International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciencehttp://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_2_No_24_Special_Issue_December_2012/4.pdf""

Duel or two-tier federalism

In a duel or two-tier federal model, each unit is totally free, not under the control of another. This system gives emphasis to institutional autonomy of the governments in the lower rung and state authority is divided in clear terms. In a duel model, the central government and the provinces have their own constitutions and each tier has a legislature and executive. This situation is known as competitive federalism."Concept of State Restructure and Division of State power Concept paper http://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/concept_paper_restructuring_state_gtz_eng.pdf"

development goals

Goals and targets on development within certain time frame like, sustainable development goals. "local level annual budget planning guideline 2074, National Planning commission https://www.npc.gov.np/images/category/budget_guideline.pdf "

cooperation

An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit; a joint action between local levels. "local level planning process, freedom forum pocket book http://freedomforum.org.np/download/informative-pocketbook-of-local-level-planning-process/?wpdmdl=4108&refresh=5f07cff03a7871594347504"

constitutional structure

Body of government formed under the constutional provision. "A guide to government in Nepal, The Asia Faoundaion https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/AGuidetoGovernmentinNepal.pdf"

Constitutional Monarchy

Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power) in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Although it is also seen that the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, or monarch retains significantly less personal discretion in the exercise of their authority.Constitutional monarchy may refer to a system in which the monarch acts as a non-party political head of state under the constitution, whether written or unwritten. In addition to acting as a visible symbol of national unity, a constitutional monarch may hold formal powers such as dissolving parliament or giving royal assent to legislation. However, the exercise of such powers may largely be exercises strictly in accordance with either written constitutional principles or unwritten constitutional conventions, rather than any personal political preference imposed by the sovereign."Concept of State Restructure and Division of State power Concept paper http://constitutionnet.org/sites/default/files/concept_paper_restructuring_state_gtz_eng.pdf"

Constituent Unit

A constitutionally recognized member units of a federation which may be labelled states, provinces, cantons, municipalities, district etc. In a federation the constitution divides sovereign powers between a federal authority and the constituent units.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Constituency development fund

It is under federal parliament to members of parliament for their respective constituency. "Democracy Resource Center Nepal, Functionong of and participating in Provicial Assemblies https://www.democracyresource.org/reports/"

Constituency

A constituency is a geographically defined area in which voters elect a representative to a legislative body such as a parliament.""

consent requirement

This principle underspins the idea that no one level of government is more powerful, as the units retain their right of self government. Constitutionally, this may translate into requiring the unanimous consent of the sub units when amending the original contract."https://www.cpsa-acsp.ca/papers-2005/Verrelli.pdf"

Confederation

A group of nations or states, or a government encompassing several states or political divisions, in which the component states retain considerable independence. The members of a confederation often delegate only a few powers to the central authority.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Conditional grants

Grants provided by GoN to provincial governments and local units, and by provincial governments to local units to implement a plan in line with national policy with the recommendation of the NNRFC. The GoN can fix necessary terms on project implementation while providing conditional grants and the concerned province and local units must abide by the terms. There is also the provision for provinces to provide conditional grants to local units as per the terms fixed by NNRFC under provincial legislation.""

Concurrent Powers

Powers that are shared by federal and constituent governments under a federal constitution. Where laws in an area of concurrency conflict, the federal law is normally paramount. For example, education and health are areas where union government and state governments in India hold concurrent powers.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Concurrent Powers

Powers that are shared by federal and constituent governments under a federal constitution. Where laws in an area of concurrency conflict, the federal law is normally paramount. For example, education and health are areas where union government and state governments in India hold concurrent powers.""Glossary for Constitution Building Training Programme IDEA https://www.idea.int/sites/default/files/publications/a-glossary-of-constitutional-terms-english-nepali.pdf""

Jerrymendering

Making a policy decision (esp. For defining territory) in concerned or favourable to the certain group of people.

accountability

The requirement to provide reasons and justifications of actions and the outcomes thereof to stakeholders, voters or legislatures. It is also a formal relationship between office holders and those who may appoint, dismiss or elect them, perhaps subject to periodic review. A democratic government, for example, is accountable to its electorate through periodic elections.(Source: constitutionmakingforpeace.org/glossary/)

Enumerated system of implementing federalism